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What do the abbreviations mean: Li-ion, NiCd, LiPo, LiFePO4, LiMn, NiMH, LTO or Li4Ti5O12, Li-SOCI2?

Li-ion = Lithium-Ion
NiCd = Nickel-Cadmium
LiPo = lithium polymer
LiFePO4 = Lithium Iron Phosphate
LiMn = lithium manganese
NiMH = nickel-metal hydride
LTO or Li4Ti5O12 = Lithium Titanate Oxide
Li-SOCI2 = lithium thionyl chloride


What does the abbreviation SoC, Ah, mAh, Wh, V, A, PCM mean?

SoC = State of Charge
Ah = ampere hours
mAh = milliampere-hours
Wh = watt-hours
V = Voltage
A = Ampere
PCM = Protection Circuit Module (protection electronics)


What do the different designations 6S1P, 7S10P etc. mean?

The designations stand for the arrangement of the cells
S = Serial
P = Parallel

The number stands for the number.

6S1P = Thus 6 cells serial and 1 cell parallel.
7S10P = thus 7 cells serial and 10 cells parallel.


What is the difference between a "primary" and "secondary" cell?

A primary cell is not rechargeable.
Secondary cell is rechargeable.


What is a cylindrical cell or round cell?

Cylindrical cells are particularly robust and for this reason are used in many applications. They consist of a cylindrically wound cell with a hard housing. (hard case)


Can I have my battery tested for its current condition?

Yes, but this requires laboratory measuring equipment.


How long do I have a warranty on batteries and rechargeable batteries?

The warranty period for batteries and rechargeable batteries is 6 months.


When should batteries be replaced?

When the battery pack for the actual application (e.g. e-bike, golf trolley) can no longer provide sufficient energy to ensure proper operation.
However, one should always remember the environmental apse. Disposal of batteries is relatively costly for the sake of the environment.
Everyone should therefore consider before disposal whether it is really necessary.

There are in addition, other reasons, which should lead to a direct however appropriate disposal.
It can be dangerous if the battery has been mechanically damaged, e.g. if it has been dropped.
Even if the battery should become noticeably warm during operation, it is advisable to have it checked. You can have this done by a company specialized in batteries.
With lithium-polymer batteries it can also happen that they become inflated. Cells in this state are often subject to very high pressure, which can be very dangerous.
These batteries should also be disposed of properly as soon as possible.


Where can I dispose of batteries and accumulators?

It is best to dispose of your rechargeable batteries at your specialist dealer or at the appropriate collection points for problematic materials.
If it concerns single cells that you would like to dispose of, there are already many markets nowadays that offer battery collection boxes for disposal.

In order to prevent batteries that accumulate in such boxes from developing a danger of short circuits, it is always better to tape the poles against them.


What is a charge cycle?

A charge cycle describes the charging of a battery from the lowest state of charge up to 100%.


What is rated voltage?

The voltage of an electrical device or voltage circuit in normal operation. This value is usually specified by the manufacturer, a lithium ion cell for example has a nominal voltage of about 3.6Volt. The nominal voltage of a battery can be found in the technical data sheet.


What is operating voltage?

The voltage required to operate an electrical circuit and thus a device.


Can I still buy NiCd (Nickel-Cadmium) rechargeable batteries?

Since 2017, NiCd batteries may only be used in emergency systems, emergency lighting and medical equipment. Only stocks already in the EU may be sold. NiCd batteries can be replaced by NiMh (nickel metal hydride) batteries of the same construction and the same values. Old chargers can still be used for NiMh batteries.


What controls the protection electronics (pcb)?

In general, everyone should make sure that their battery is not operated improperly or exposed to unfavorable or even dangerous conditions.
How to handle the battery correctly is described in detail in the enclosed information sheet or you can find the necessary information on the homepage.
If an unfavorable situation should occur for the battery nevertheless, the protective electronics will ensure that the battery will interrupt operation and thus avoid a potentially dangerous situation. These include circumstances like:

  • Protection against overcharge
  • Protection against discharge into the deep discharge area
  • Protection against too high currents (e.g. in case of short circuit)
  • Dispose of protection against too high temperatures.


What is deep discharge of a battery?

Deep discharge of a rechargeable battery is the state after current withdrawal until the capacity is almost completely exhausted or until it falls below a certain voltage.


What does self-discharge mean?

Self-discharge is the term used to describe processes that occur automatically and lead to batteries and accumulators discharging more or less quickly, even if no electrical consumer is connected.


Should I remove the battery from my device when not in use?

Yes, because even when the device is switched off, a small current could flow, which leads to a deep discharge after a long time.


What is the memory effect?

The memory effect: If NiCd batteries are not fully discharged before charging, this point becomes their full operating capacity. The battery "remembers" how far it has been discharged and can no longer be used afterwards. To a lesser extent, the same memory effect occurs with NiMH batteries. This is caused by a change in the crystals on the electrodes in the battery.


Handling of lithium-ion batteries


Can lithium-ion batteries explode? 

Yes, they can. However, we are talking here more about inflammation than explosion, and for that to happen, a lot must have gone wrong when handling them.
In general, always make sure that a suitable charger is used, especially for Li-Ion batteries. This charger should also meet a certain quality standard, so please do not buy batteries and chargers from unknown sources. When buying your battery, ask if it is equipped with a protection electronics (usually also called PCM) with integrated balancing. These electronics monitor the battery and protect it from all inadmissible events. Should one of these events occur, the battery will switch off and go into self-protection, which you can reset yourself in most cases. If you follow these points, you will be safe with the Li-Ion technology and can use the enormous power of these batteries without any danger.


Can I charge my lithium-ion batteries with any charger?

No, only with a suitable lithium-ion charger.
In general, you should always make sure that a suitable charger especially for Li-Ion batteries is used. This charger should also meet a certain quality standard, so please do not buy batteries and chargers from unknown sources. When buying your battery, ask if it is equipped with a protection electronics (usually also called PCM) with integrated balancing. These electronics monitor the battery and protect it from all inadmissible events. Should one of these events occur, the battery will switch off and go into self-protection, which you can reset yourself in most cases. If you follow these points, you will be safe with the Li-Ion technology and can use the enormous power of these batteries without any danger.


Can I ship a lithium battery?

In principle, yes, if you have the appropriate training or instruction for dangerous goods.
This is the only way to ensure that you are familiar with the regulations.


Can I take my lithium-ion battery with me on the plane?

Yes, in hand luggage and checked baggage, if the Wh = watt-hour capacity does not exceed 100Wh.
Replacement batteries may only be stowed in hand luggage and must be packed individually and protected to prevent short circuits.
Only batteries for personal use may be carried.


Handling and maintenance of e-bike batteries


Can I have an e-bike battery or lawnmower battery repaired or replaced?

In principle yes. Only after checking the battery can it be determined whether an exchange of single cells is possible.


Can I charge my E-Bike battery overnight?

No, because batteries may not be charged unattended.


Transport of dangerous goods and certifications

Where can I find the transport information for the battery?

In the SDB / MSDS (Material Safety Datasheet) at point 14.


What is the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) / Safety Data Sheet (SDS)?

The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required for the transport of dangerous goods.
The certificate is part of the UN38.3 test.


Why a Material Safety Data Sheet?

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are used to provide safety-related information on substances and mixtures.


What does dangerous goods / hazardous materials mean?

Articles or substances that are capable of posing a risk to health, safety, material assets or the environment. e.g: UN3480 lithium-ion batteries.


What are cells and what are batteries when transporting dangerous goods?

Lithium Batteries (battery = battery pack):
"Battery" means two or more cells that are electrically connected and equipped with devices necessary for their use, e.g: battery cases, battery terminals, marking and protection devices.

LLithium Cells:
A single cell lithium battery is considered a "cell" and shall be tested in accordance with the test requirements for a "cell" for the purposes of these Regulations and the requirements of subsection 38.3 of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria.


Is NiMH a hazardous material?

Yes, but only in ocean freight (IMDG).
In air freight there is an exception A199 (special provision).
On road / rail it is not subject to the dangerous goods regulations, so on road and rail it is not a dangerous good.


What is the ISO9001?

ISO9001 is an international quality management standard. It describes which requirements the management system of an organization - be it a company or a public authority - must meet in order to comply with a certain standard in the implementation of quality management.


What is ISO14001?

The international environmental management standard ISO 14001 defines globally recognized requirements for an environmental management system and is part of a family of standards.


What is a UN number?

The UN number is a four-digit number used to identify substances or objects in accordance with the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. A UN number is assigned to each hazardous material in the hazardous material lists of the regulations of all modes of transport.


What does UN3480 mean?

UN3480 is the UN number for lithium-ion batteries.


What does UN3481 mean?

UN3481 is the UN number for lithium-ion batteries packaged or lithium-ion batteries in equipment.


What does UN3090 mean?

UN3090 is the UN number for lithium metal batteries.


What does UN3091 mean?

UN3091 is the UN number for lithium metal batteries packaged or lithium metal batteries in equipment.


What does UN3496 mean?

UN3496 is the UN number for nickel metal hydride batteries.


What is the UN38.3 test?

The UN38.3 test is a transport and safety test for lithium batteries and cells.
Basically all lithium cells and battery packs must be tested according to UN Manual 38.3 UN. In the course of this UN test, the MSDS / MSDS (Material Safety Datasheet) is also obtained, which basically checks all carriers in advance whether they accept these goods for transport. 


What is a UN test summary according to 38.3 UN?

Manufacturers and subsequent distributors of cells or batteries manufactured after June 30, 2003 must provide the test summary specified in the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria Part III, subsection 38.3, paragraph 38.3.5.


What is the CE certificate?

The CE certificate (declaration of conformity) confirms that the manufacturer meets the requirements of the EU regulation 765/208 for the product.


What is the IEC62133 test?

IEC 62133 is one of the most important safety standards for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries used in consumer products, IT equipment, tools, laboratory, household and medical equipment.


What does IEC mean?

International Electronical Commission; private-law international standardization body for standards in the field of electrical engineering and electronics; headquarters in Geneva.


What does ADR mean?

ADR stands for "Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises dangereuses par route". In German this means: "Europäisches Übereinkommen über die internationale Beförderung gefährlicher Güter auf der Straße".


What does IMDG mean?

The IMDG Code (International Maritime Code for Dangerous Goods) is the transport regulation for dangerous goods by sea.


What does ICAO mean?

The International Civil Aviation Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations with headquarters in Montreal, Canada. International Civil Aviation Organization


What does IATA mean?

The INternational Air Transport Association was founded as the umbrella organization of the airline industry in Cuba.


What does ADN mean?

The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways (ADN, from Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises dangereuses par voie de navigation intérieure).


What does DGD mean?

Dangerous goods declaration, is the shipper's declaration for the shipment of dangerous goods by air.


What does DGR mean?

Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR) (IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations) is a set of rules for the transport of dangerous goods by air of IATA.


What does IMO mean?

INternational Marine Organisation, i.e. International Maritime Organisation with headquarters in London.


What is an IMO declaration?

An IMO declaration is the transport document for the transport of dangerous goods by sea (IMO declaration.


What are Incoterms?

These are international trade rules. International Commercial Terms.


What does REACH mean?

Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 is an EU regulation on chemicals, which came into force on June 1, 2007. REACH stands for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals.


What does RoHs mean?

The EU Directive 2011/65/EU serves to restrict the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. It regulates the use and marketing of hazardous substances in electrical equipment and electronic components.


What is a Dual-Use Declaration?

Dual-Use describes the basic usability of goods for both civil and military purposes. This includes in particular goods from the field of sensitive electronics, telecommunications, IT technology, but also data processing programs or other technologies.


What is a long-term supplier's declaration?

The supplier's declaration is a document that can normally only be used in the European Union. It serves as proof when applying for or issuing a preference certificate. It can also be used to apply for a certificate of origin (e.g. EUR. 1).


What is an origin declaration / supplier's declaration?

A supplier's declaration is a proof of the preferential origin of imported goods. It is required by the exporter as proof for issuing and applying for a proof of preference.


What is a customs tariff number?

Companies need a customs tariff number, also known as a commodity code, to conduct their foreign trade transactions. The customs tariff number is the numerical coding of a commodity. The determination of the customs tariff number is called tariff classification or classification of the goods in the customs tariff of the European Union.


What is the net weight?

This is the weight of a battery without its packaging.


What is the gross weight?

This is the weight of a battery with your packaging.


What does IP mean?

IP = International Protection
Describes a type of protection that indicates the suitability of electrical equipment for various environmental conditions, and also the protection of people against potential hazards during use. Protection classes are IP00 to IP69K.

The letters IP, which are always present in the protection class designation, are followed by two code numbers (generally without space in between). These indicate the degree of protection provided by an enclosure against contact or foreign bodies (first digit) and moisture or water (second digit).